A I have not read books that I feel really meet your expectations, but I have found some suggestions, I just haven't read them.
1. The 5 Elements of Effective Thinking by Edward B. Burger and Micheal Starbird
This is a book about working through problems logically which is essential to science education.
2. The Science of Science Policy by Kaye Husbands Fealing, Julia I. Lane, John H. Marburger III, and Stephanie S. Shipp
This book looks promising, but I'm not sure how much it would apply to the world as a whole or if it only focuses on American policy.
3. BEYOND SPUTNIK – U.S. Science Policy in the 21st Century
It is geared towards the US policy, but is supposed to be an intellectually challenging read.
I realize this is only three books, but I'm hoping this helps.
A few others I would Recommend but may not be what you are looking for
Really I would consider anything by Richard Feynman a suggestion
Also, Neil DeGrasse Tyson and Brain Greene write wonderfully for the public.
This is a small fraction of the books out there of course, let me know if you feel I left out something huge.